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Peel Adhesion Methods

Vartest upgraded our Instron with a 90-degree peel fixture earlier this year.  It allows us to now perform the following methods:

  • ASTM B571: Standard Practice for Qualitative Adhesion Testing of Metallic Coatings
  • ASTM D429 Method B: Standard Test Methods for Rubber Property—Adhesion to Rigid Substrates
  • ASTM D3330 Method F: Standard Test Method for Peel Adhesion of Pressure-Sensitive Tape
  • ASTM D6252: Standard Test Method for Peel Adhesion of Pressure-Sensitive Label Stocks at a 90° Angle
  • ASTM D6862: Standard Test Method for 90 Degree Peel Resistance of Adhesives

Bed Sheet Thread Count Testing

Thread counts are an important characteristic of top of the bed fabrics, both for consumers and technologists.

As commonly used in the United States the thread count, or “T number,” of a top of the bed (bed sheet) fabric is the sum of the ends (lengthwise yarns) per inch plus the picks (widthwise yarns) per inch contained in the fabric.

The most common woven fabric construction for top of the bed fabrics is the plain weave.  Light and scanning electron images of a lightweight 100% plain weave cotton sheeting fabric are shown below:

 

Light Microscopy of 100% Cotton Sheeting Fabric

 

Scanning Electron Microscopy of 100% Cotton Sheeting Fabric

 

Graphically, this is represented as:

 

Plain Weave

 

Another common woven structure for top of the bed products is the satin weave:

 

Satin Weave

 

Fabrics made of 100% cotton can always have their thread counts determined unambiguously using current definitions, as can intimate blends of cotton and polyester staple (polyester fibers cut up to a length similar to cotton). Top of the bed fabrics containing continuous filament yarns can be trickier to deal with, partially due to unclear definitions of how to count continuous filament yarns in top of the bed products, and partially because of the nature of continuous filament yarns.

The following shows the back of a top of the bed woven satin made with 100% cotton yarns. This fabric uses “10 pick insertion.”  10 individual picks are inserted into the shed (the temporary separation between the upper and lower warp yarns through which the filling is woven) of the loom before the harnesses of the loom alternate and a new shed is formed.

Several years ago ASTM updated the standard terminology for how plied yarns used in bed sheets are counted:

“ASTM D7023 06 (Reapproved 2012) Standard Terminology Relating to Home Furnishings:

thread count, n—in woven textiles as used in sheets and bedding, the sum of the number of warp yarns (ends) and filling yarns (picks) per unit distance as counted while the fabric is held under zero tension and is free of folds and wrinkles, individual warp and filling yarns are counted as single units regardless of whether comprised of single or plied components.

DISCUSSION—The thread count of sheets and bedding articles is frequently displayed on the outside packaging of such items, or utilized in advertising literature. The specific construction of the warp and filling yarns used to construct the fabric in such items may also be displayed. Examples:

“300 Thread count, 2 ply yarn.” A representation of “600 thread count” for this same product would be likely to mislead consumers about the quality of the product purchased.

“Finely woven 380 2 ply fabric.” The representation of “finely woven 760 threads per square inch” is considered to be misleading to the consumer.

The following shows the back of a top of the bed satin fabric made with a 100% polyester filament filling and 100% cotton warp.”

With filament filling yarns the presence of distinct separable yarns comprising a multiple pick insertion fabric can be hard to determine.

To find out more about bed sheets, Take A Video Tour Of An Indian Top Of The Bed Factory or contact us directly.

Vartest is an ISO 17025 Accredited Laboratory in Manhattan providing fast turnaround and technical drill down testing for all aspects of fiber, yarn, fabric and end product testing.

Vartest Approved Under Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Data Acceptance Program

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Vartest Laboratories conducts testing of high-visibility safety apparel (HVSA), including garments, retroreflective tapes, and background materials for a range of global standards.  This includes ANSI/ISEA 107, CSA Z96, ISO 20471, ASNZS 1906.4, and NFPA 1971.

As of August 2016, Vartest is certified to participate in Underwriters Laboratories’ (UL) Third Party Test Data Program (TPTDP). Under this program, test data from Vartest will be accepted by UL in support of UL Mark certification.  Vartest’s scope of testing under this program applies to UL’s Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Standard, Including ISEA 107, CSA-Z96, and NFPA 1971. These standards cover compliance of high-visibility garments, background materials, and retroreflective tapes.

UL’s typical certification process requires samples to be tested and approved through one of their own laboratories. This means that manufacturers and vendors seeking a UL Mark for one of their products must test and approve samples for compliance, and then have them tested a second time by UL themselves. When working with a TPTDP participant, however, only one round of testing is necessary, as the participant’s data is accepted by UL. Per UL’s website, this alternative process provides “increased control over the timing and schedule for their product testing and certification program,” because testing, and approval can all be performed at one location. This can significantly reduce the time and expenses incurred during testing.

Vartest prides itself on being an independent third party lab focused on quick and accurate test results. Our ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation through A2LA makes us fully qualified to test under ANSI/ISEA 107-2015.

 

Puncture Propagation Tear Testing via ASTM D2582 at Vartest

Vartest tests coated and uncoated fabrics used primarily in Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) using ASTM D2582. This test is often used in the medical and military markets and Vartest also has the capacity to provide anti-bacterial, moisture management, physical, flammability, washing and dry-cleaning tests that performance specifications calling for ASTM D2582 often include.

 

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Bisphenol A Added to Prop 65 List

Update: Be aware that BPA was added back to the California Prop 65 chemical list. BPA can be frequently found in hard plastics and polycarbonate. Effective May 11, 2016, a warning label is required in California for exposure to BPA. There is no published safe harbor level from OEHHA for BPA.

Source: OEHHA

 

Vartest Laboratories supported the Drexel effort to bring the National Network for Advanced Functional Fabrics Manufacturing to Philadelphia

“The U.S. Department of Defense has tapped Drexel University as a key leader in the creation of a $75 million national research institute that will support American textile manufacturers in bringing sophisticated new materials and textiles to the marketplace. [1]”

Vartest looks forward to being a technical resource for AFFOA projects, as part of the Fabric Innovation Initiative (FIN). This resurgence of cutting-edge textile technology in the North East harkens back to the birth of the US textile industry in the North East and the development of a significant textile technology department at MIT, but with a pleasant and welcome, modern high-tech twist.

[1] http://www.rle.mit.edu/fabric/

AFFOA

Adam Varley Presentation at FIT

Adam Varley is giving a presentation at FIT for “Global Sourcing in the Textile Industries.”

Download the Slideshow from his presentation here: Working with Labs

Visit the Fashion Institute of Technology website.

FIBER CROSS SECTIONS AT VARTEST

Vartest is equipped with state of the art fiber cross sectioning equipment not normally found in labs without significant seasoned experience in working with the fiber, yarn, fabric, apparel and allied trades.

Vartest Microtome

Vartest’s Sledge Microtome And Resin Embedded Sections

This system provides outstanding cross-sections as seen in the following slide show:

Vartest-Fiber-Cross Sections POWERPOINT

 

Both natural and synthetic fibers, yarns and fabrics can be sectioned with this system.  For further information contact either Esmeralda Castillo or Trevor Trapp.”

AATCC Press Release

News Release
For Immediate Release

AATCC Recognizes Varley, Greeson With TCR Service Award

     RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C., USA, April 10, 2014— H. Kenneth Greeson of Cotton Incorporated and Adam R. Varley of Vartest Laboratories Inc. were honored by the AATCC Technical Committee on Research (TCR) with the TCR Service Award in recognition of their achievements and service to AATCC. The award was presented at the 2014 AATCC International Conference in Asheville, NC, on April 3, 2014. Varley was recognized for his contribution toward the development of the Fiber ID Technical Supplement and for almost yearly additions or revisions to Test Methods TM 20 and TM 20A in an effort to make those the most complete test methods in the world. Greeson was recognized for his contribution toward the major revision of AATCC Test Method 97 (Extractable Content of Textiles) for the 2014 AATCC Technical Manual. Greeson attended North Carolina State University (NCSU) and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in textile chemistry. His current position at Cotton Incorporated is Manager, Textile Chemistry Research, in the Textile Chemistry Research department. His primary responsibilities include research and development in the field of fabric finishing, including areas such as wrinkle resistance, moisture management, repellency, flame retardancy, and abrasion resistance. His responsibilities also include management of the Finishing Research Laboratory.

     Varley is Technical Director and Co-Founder of Vartest Laboratories Inc. He attended the Fashion Institute of Technology from 1978 to 1980, working toward an Associate Degree in Textile Technology. In 1987 he graduated with a BA in Computer Science and Business Management from New York University and in 2001 he received a Master of Textiles, Textile Chemistry and Apparel Management, from North Carolina State University. He has been a member of AATCC since 1978 and has been active in several research committees, especially in RA24, Fiber Analysis Test Methods, where he has served as chair or acting chair and is currently chair. Outside of AATCC, Varley has served on ASTM Committee D13 for textiles, two subcommittees responsible for test method and specification development, and on the US Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for ISO/TC38-Textiles for Working Group 22, Chemical Test Methods.

     The Award: The Technical Committee on Research Service (TCR) Award was established in 2008 to recognize those members who have contributed greatly to the AATCC organization in a technical capacity. Senior members of the Association with at least five years of continuous membership in AATCC, who have contributed outstanding technical service to the Association through activity in a research committee, are eligible. Selection is by unanimous choice of the TCR Service Award Committee, composed of the current Chair of Technical Committee on Research, Vice Chair of TCR, Chair of the Executive Committee on Research (ECR) and the Secretary of TCR. The Award consists of a plaque and an honorarium, presented at the International Conference.

     About AATCC: AATCC, the Association of Textile, Apparel & Materials Professionals, is the world’s leading not-for-profit association serving textile professionals since 1921. AATCC, headquartered in Research Triangle Park, N.C., USA, provides test method development, quality control materials, and professional networking for members in about 60 countries throughout the world.

For a photo of our TCR Service Award winners, please visit the following links:
– Adam Varley: http://www.aatcc.org/media/pr/2014/AdamVarley.jpg
– Ken Greeson: http://www.aatcc.org/media/pr/2014/KenGreeson.jpg

Vartest’s Outstanding Achievements and Service Recognized by AATCC

Adam Varley, Vartest’s Technical Director & COO was honored to be the recipient of the TCR Service Reward “In Recognition for His Service to AATCC Research Committees”. On Thursday, April 3rd 2014, Adam attended a luncheon at the Crowne Plaza Resort in Asheville, North Carolina, and was presented with this award for “his contribution toward the development of the AATCC Fiber ID Technical Supplement and the continuous updating of AATCC Test Methods 20 and 20A.”

AdamsAward