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Industrial Protocols

TEST RECOMMENDATIONS

COMMERCIAL / CONTRACT: DRAPERY

As cited by ACT (Association for Contract Textiles) Guidelines
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt. 3 (60 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability NFPA 701 2004 Test #1
Seam Slippage ASTM D434 as modified by ASTM 03597

COMMERCIAL / CONTRACT: PANELS AND UPHOLSTERED WALLS

As cited by ACT (Association for Contract Textiles) Guidelines
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: ASTM E84

COMMERCIAL / CONTRACT: UPHOLSTERY

As cited by ACT (Association for Contract Textiles) Guidelines
Abrasion ASTM D4157
Abrasion ASTM D4966
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Brush Pill ASTM D3511
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E
Seam Slippage ASTM D4034

HEALTHCARE DRAPERY

Antimicrobial Testing AATCC 147, AATCC 100
Antifungal Testing: AATCC 30:III
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt. 3 (60 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability NFPA 701: 2004 Test #1, California Title 19 Section 1237.1
Seam Slippage ASTM D434 as modified by ASTM D3597

HEALTHCARE:UPHOLSTERY

Antimicrobial Testing: AATCC 147, AATCC 100
Antifungal Testing AATCC 30:III
Abrasion ASTM D4157
Abrasion ASTM D4966
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Brush Pill ASTM D3511
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E, NFPA 260
Hydrostatic Resistance (Moisture Barrier Performance) AATCC 127
Seam Slippage ASTM D4034

HOSPITALITY BEDDING

Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Bursting Strength ASTM D3787
Colorfastness to Accelerated Laundering AATCC 61
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (20 hours)
Colorfastness to Perspiration AATCC 15
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Dimensional Change to Laundering AATCC 96
Flammability ASTM D1230
Random Tumble Pilling ASTM D3512

HOSPITALITY: DRAPERY

Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt. 3 (60 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability NFPA 701: 2004 Test #1, California Title 19 Section 1237.1
Seam Slippage ASTM D434 as modified by ASTM D3597

HOSPITALITY: UPHOLSTERY

Abrasion ASTM D4157
Abrasion ASTM D4966
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Brush Pill ASTM D3511
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E, NFPA 260
Seam Slippage ASTM D4034

INSTITUTIONAL: DRAPERY

Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16, Opt. 3 (60 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability NFPA 701: 2004 Test #1, California Title 19 Section 1237.1
Seam Slippage ASTM D434 as modified by ASTM D3597

INSTITUTIONAL: PANELS AND UPHOLSTERED WALLS

Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16, Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: ASTM E84

INSTITUTIONAL: UPHOLSTERY

Abrasion ASTM D4157
Abrasion ASTM D4966
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Brush Pill ASTM D3511
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117, Section E, NFPA 260
Seam Slippage ASTM D4034

MARINE: UPHOLSTERY VINYL FABRIC

Abrasion CFFA 1
Breaking Strength ASTM D751, CFFA 17
Cold Crack Resistance CFFA 6
Colorfastness to Light CFFA 2
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking CFFA 7
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E, NFPA 260
Fungal Resistance ASTM G21, CFFA 120
Seam Strength ASTM D751, CFFA 14
Tear Strength CFFA 16

WOVEN FABRIC

Abrasion ASTM D4157
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Colorfastness to Light ASTM G154
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E, NFPA 260
Fungal Resistance ASTM G21
Fungal Resistance AATCC 30:111
Seam Slippage ASTM D4034
Tear Strength ASTM D2261

OUTDOOR: AIR TENT & TENSILE STRUCTURES

Breaking Strength ASTM D751
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Breaking Strength ASTM D5035
Coating Adhesion ASTM D751
Cold Crack Resistance ASTM D2136
Colorfastness to Light ASTM G154
Flammability ASTM E84, California Title 19 Section 1237.1, CPAI-84,
NFPA 701
Hydrostatic Resistance AATCC 127
Hydrostatic Resistance ASTM 0751
Tear Strength ASTM D751
Tear Strength ASTM D1424
Tear Strength ASTM D2261
Tear Strength ASTM D5587

OUTDOOR: AWNINGS

Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Breaking Strength ASTM D5035
Colorfastness to Light ASTM G154
Flammability California Title 19 Section 1237.1, NFPA 701
Hydrostatic Resistance AATCC 127
Fungal Resistance ASTM G21
Tear Strength ASTM D2261
Tear Strength ASTM D5587

OUTDOOR: UPHOLSTERY

Abrasion ASTM D3884
Abrasion ASTM D4157
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Colorfastness to Light ASTM G154
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E, NFPA 260
Fungal Resistance ASTM G21
Pilling Resistance ASTM D3512
Seam Strength ASTM D4034
Tear Strength ASTM D2261
Tear Strength ASTM D5587
Water Repellency AATCC 22

RESIDENTIAL: DRAPERY

Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Bursting Strength ASTM D3787
Colorfastness to Accelerated Laundering AATCC 61
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (60 hours)
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Dimensional Change to Laundering AATCC 135
Flammability: NFPA 701 2004 Test #1
Seam Slippage ASTM D434 as modified by ASTM 03597
Tear Strength ASTM D2261

RESIDENTIAL UPHOLSTERY

Abrasion ASTM D3597
Breaking Strength ASTM D5034
Brush Pill ASTM D3511
Colorfastness to Light AATCC 16 Opt.3 (40 hours)
Colorfastness to Solvent ASTM D3597
Colorfastness to Water AATCC 107
Colorfastness to Wet / Dry Crocking AATCC 8
Flammability: California Technical Bulletin 117 Sec. E
Seam Slippage ASTM D4034

 

TEST EXPLANATIONS

AIR PERMEABILITY
ASTM D737

Measures the rate of air flow passing perpendicular
through a known area under a prescribed air pressure
differential between the two surfaces of material.

ASTM D1230 (16 CFR 1610)
FLAMMABILITY OF APPAREL TEXTILES

Used to classify fabrics’ ease of ignition and burning
rate. Specimens are subjected to a 5/8 inch flame for
1 second and given a classification based on performance.

ASTM D6413 FLAME RESISTANCE OF
VERTICAL TEXTILES

Used to measure the vertical flame resistance of textiles.
Specimens are subjected to a 1.5 inch flame for 12 seconds.

ASTM E84

Rates flame spread and smoke development of interior finish
building materials. The inadherent method is used for materials
that will not ultimately be glued to a surface. The adhered
method is used when materials will be glued to a surface.
Gypsum board and GRC board simulate drywall and noncombustible
surfaces, respectively.

ASTM E662 SMOKE DENSITY

Measures the amount of smoke emitted by a fabric during combustion.
Specimens are subjected to a radiant heat source and small
igniting flames.

BACTERIAL RESISTANCE
AATCC 147/ CFFA 300

A qualitative procedure for evaluation of the degree of
antibacterial activity on textiles. Determines if growth will be
inhibited under and around the specimen tested.
Bacteria used: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia.

BACTERIAL RESISTANCE
AATCC 100

A quantitative procedure for evaluation of the degree of
antibacterial activity on textile materials. Determines if the finish
will inhibit or kill bacteria.
Bacteria used: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia

BIFMA FABRIC CLASSIFICATION

Measures ignition resistance of upholstery fabric when subjected to a
smoldering cigarette using both a glass fiberboard and cotton batting
substrates.

BIFMA FABRIC SCREENING TEST

Used to classify upholstery fabrics. Specimens are subjected to a 5/8
inch flame for 1 second and given a pass or fail rating.

BLOCKING

CFFA 4
Determines the development of surface tack of chemically coated fabrics
at elevated temperatures.

BOSTON BFD IX-1

Used to classify draperies and decorative materials used within the city
of Boston, MA. Specimens are subjected to a 6 inch propane torch flame
for 10 seconds.

BOW & SKEW

ASTM D3882
Measures the displacement of filling yarns or courses across the width of
a fabric.

BREAKING STRENGTH

ASTM D5034/D751/D3597/CFFA 17
Measures the maximum force applied to a material to force a rupture.

BRUSH PILL

ASTM D3511
Measures the propensity of a fabric to form pills (bunches or balls of
tangled fibers which are held to the surface by one or more fibers).
Specimens are brushed with a nylon bristle brush for 4 minutes to create
fuzzing and then rubbed face to face for 2 minutes to create pilling.

BURSTING STRENGTH (BALL)

ASTM D3787
Measures the force required to rupture a fabric by distending it
with a force applied at a right angle to the plane of the fabric.
A metal ball is used as the applied force.

BURSTING STRENGTH (DIAPHRAGM)

ASTM D3786
Measures the force required to rupture a
fabric by distending it with a force applied at a right angle to the plane of the fabric.
An inflated rubber diaphragm is used as the applied force.

CALIFORNIA BULLETIN 117 SEC E

Performed to classify upholstery fabrics used within the state of
California. Specimens are subjected to a 5/8 inch flame for 1 second and
given a pass or fail rating.

CALIFORNIA FIRE MARSHALL TITLE 19

1237.1 SMALL SCALE
Performed to classify draperies and decorative materials used within the
state of California. Specimens are subjected to a 1.5 inch flame for 12
seconds.

COATING ADHESION

ASTM D751/CFFA 3
Determines the force required to separate a chemical coating from the
backing material.

COLD CRACK RESISTANCE
CFFA 6a ROLLER METHOD

Determines the temperature at which cracks
may appear if a chemically coated fabric is
left in the cold and then folded sharply under
the pressure of a roller

COLD CRACK RESISTANCE
CFFA 6B MANDREL METHOD

Determines the temperature at which cracks
may appear if a chemically coated fabric
is left in the cold and then folded sharply
around a mandrel.

COLORFASTNESS TO BLEACH
AATCC 61 (SECTION 5A)

Determines the ability of a fabric to resist
color change when subjected to bleach
under accelerated laundering conditions.

COLORFASTNESS TO
DRY CLEANING

AATCC 132
Determines the ability of a fabric to resist
color change or transfer its color to adjacent
fabrics when subjected to three commercial
dry cleanings.

COLORFASTNESS TO LAUNDERING

AATCC 61
Determines the ability of a fabric to resist
color change or transfer its color to adjacent
fabrics under accelerated laundering
conditions.

COLORFASTNESS TO LIGHT
AATCC 16, OPTION 3/ CFFA 2A

An accelerated method that assesses
the specimen’s ability to resist fading or
other color degradation when exposed to
a Xenon Arc light source for a specified
amount of time. Light simulates sunlight
through window glass.

COLORFASTNESS TO LIGHT
ASTM G154/CFFA 2C

An accelerated method that assesses
the specimen’s ability to resist fading or
other color degradation when exposed to
alternate cycles of UV light and dark condensing
humidity for a specified amount
of time; light simulates direct sunlight
while dark cycle simulates night with dew
formation.

COLORFASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION
AATCC 15

Determines the effect of acid perspiration
on fabrics in regards to the ability to resist
color change or dye transfer to adjacent
fabrics.

COLORFASTNESS TO POOL WATER
AATCC 162

Determines the effect of chlorinated pool
water on fabrics in regards to the ability to
resist color change.

COLORFASTNESS TO (SEA) WATER
AATCC 106

Determines the effect of sea water on fabrics
in regards to the ability to resist color
change or dye transfer to adjacent fabrics.

COLORFASTNESS TO SOLVENT
ASTM D3597

Determines the effect of dry cleaner
solvent on fabrics in regards to the ability
to resist color change or dye transfer to
adjacent fabrics.

COLORFASTNESS TO WATER
AATCC 107

Determines the effect of water on fabrics in
regards to the ability to resist color change
or dye transfer to adjacent fabrics.

COLORFASTNESS TO WET/DRY
CROCKING

AATCC 8/116/CFFA 7
Determines the amount of color transferred
from tile surface of a colored textile material
to another surface by rubbing.

CPAI (CANVAS PRODUCTS
ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL)
CPAI-84 SECTION 6 WALLS & TOPS

Measures the ability of materials used in
the walls and tops of tents to resist ignition.
Specimens are subjected to a 1.5 inch
flame for 12 seconds.

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE
ASTM D3597

Measures the dimensional change of a fabric
when subjected to water and allowed to
dry in the prevailing ambient temperature.

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE
CFFA 140

Determines the ability of a chemically
coated fabric to resist shrinkage when subjected
to moisture and heat.

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE TO
DRY CLEANING

AATCC 158
Determines the dimensional change of
fabrics and garments that are dry cleaned
in perchloroethylene.

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE TO
LAUNDERING

AATCC 96 COMMERCIAL LAUNDERING
AATCC 135 HOME LAUNDERING
Determines the dimensional change of fabrics
and garments when subjected to commercial
or home laundering procedures.

DYNAMIC SEAM FATIGUE
ASTM D4033

Measures the propensity of a seam to slip
(yarn displacement) when the stresses at
the seam are created by imposing a cyclic
impact and penetrating load which fatigues
the seam construction.

ELONGATION

ASTM D5034
Measures the extension length of fabric
compared to the length prior to stretching
at specified intervals.

FAR 25.853: 12 SECOND VERTICAL

Used to classify (but not limited to) coated
fabrics, draperies, leather and upholstery
for Federal Aviation use; specimens are
subjected to a 1.5 inch flame for 12 seconds.

FAR 25.853: 60 SECOND VERTICAL

Used to classify (but not limited to) interior
ceiling and wall panels for Federal Aviation
use; specimens are subjected to a 1.5 inch
flame for 60 seconds.

FTMS 191A, TEST METHOD 5903.1

Used to measure the vertical flame resistance
of textiles. Specimens are subjected
to a 1.5 inch flame for 12 seconds.

FLEX RESISTANCE
ASTM D2097/CFFA 10

Determines the resistance of a coated
fabric to crack or craze when subjected to
repeated flexing under specific conditions.

FMVSS 302

Used to classify automotive interior materials.
Specimens are held horizontal and
subjected to a 1.5 inch flame for 15 seconds.
Burn rate is calculated.

FUNGAL RESISTANCE
ASTM G21/CFFA 120

Determines the susceptibility of textile
materials to mildew and rot as well as
evaluating the efficacy of fungicides on textile
materials. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium
funiculosum, Chaetomium globosum,
Aureobasidium pullulans, & Trichoderma
virens are used.

FUNGAL RESISTANCE
AATCC 30:111

Determines the susceptibility of textile
materials to mildew and rot as well as evaluating
the efficacy of fungicides on textile
materials. Aspergillus niger is used.

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
AATCC 127

This measures the resistance of a fabric to
the penetration of water under hydrostatic
pressure.

IMO SECTION 2: SMOKE & TOXICITY

(ISO 5659: 1994)
Used to classify bulkhead and interior
finish materials for use on commercial
boats travelling in international waters.
Specimens are subjected to an irradiant
ignition source; optical density and gas
concentration levels are measured.

IMO SECTION 5: SURFACE
FLAMMABILITY
RESOLUTION A.653(16)

Used to classify bulkhead and interior finish
materials for use on commercial boats travelling
in international waters. Specimens
are subjected to radiant panel ignition.

IMO SECTION 7: VERTICAL
FLAMMABILITY
RESOLUTION A.471 (XII)-A.563(14)

Used to classify drapery for use on
commercial boats travelling in international
waters. Specimens are subjected to
increasing levels of ignition until ignition is
sustained.

IMO SECTION 8: UPHOLSTERY
FLAMMABILITY
RESOLUTION A.652(16) SECTION 8.2

Used to classify upholstery fabrics for use
on commercial boats travelling in international
waters. Specimens are subjected
to a smoldering cigarette as an ignition
source.

RESOLUTION A.652(16) SECTION 8.3

Used to classify upholstery fabrics for use
on commercial boats travelling in international
waters. Specimens are subjected to
a 1.5 inch flame for 20 seconds.

IMO SECTION 9: BEDDING
FLAMMABILITY
RESOLUTION A.688(17) SECTION 5.5.1

Used to classify bedding materials used on
commercial boats travelling in international
waters. Specimens are subjected to a
smoldering cigarette as an ignition source.

RESOLUTION A.688(17) SECTION 5.5.2

Used to classify bedding materials used on
commercial boats travelling in international
waters. Specimens are subjected to a 1.5
inch flame for 20 seconds.

MARTINDALE ABRASION
ASTM D4966

Measure the abrasion resistance (wearing
away of any part of a material by rubbing it
against another surface) of textile fabrics.
Specimens are abraded by placing them
face to face with a worsted wool abradant
under 12 kPa of pressure in a lissajous figure
movement.

MARTINDALE PILLING
ASTM D4970

Measures the propensity of a fabric to form
pills (bunches or balls of tangled fibers
which are held to the surface by one or
more fibers). Specimens rub face to face
for 100 movements.

MOISTURE REGAIN
ASTM D2654

Determines the propensity of a fabric to
absorb moisture.

NEW YORK CITY BULLETIN #44
294-40 SR CITY OF NY BULLETIN #44

Used to classify draperies and decorative
materials used in places of public assembly
in New York City. Specimens are held
vertically and subjected to a 1.5 inch flame
for 12 seconds.

NFPA 260/UFAC

Measures the ability of an upholstery fabric
to resist ignition by a smoldering cigarette
when the specimen is tested in combination
with polyurethane foam cushioning.

NFPA 701:1989 SMALL SCALE

Used to classify flame resistant materials
used in the interior of buildings, protective
clothing and outdoor coverings.
Specimens are held vertically and subjected
to a 1.5 inch flame for 12 seconds.

NFPA 701 – 1996,1999,2004 TEST # 1

Used to classify fabrics or other materials
used in curtains, draperies or other window
treatments as well as other hanging textile
items. Specimens are held vertically and
subjected to a 4 inch flame for 45 seconds.

NFPA 701: 1989/1996/1999/2004
TEST#2/LARGE SCALE TEST
(FLAT OR FOLDED METHOD)

Used to classify fabrics used in curtains,
draperies or other window treatments,
vinyl coated fabrics and plastic films used
for decorative purposes as well as fabrics
used in architectural structures and banners.
Specimens are held vertically (either
in flat strips or a manner resembling drapery
folds) and are subjected to an 11 inch
flame for 2 minutes.

NY/NJ PORT AUTHORITY: DRAPERY
MATERIALS

Used to classify drapery materials for
use in NY/NJ Port Authority buildings.
Specimens are tested vertically and subjected
to a 1.5 inch flame for 12 seconds.

OILY STAIN RELEASE
AATCC 130

Measures the ability of fabrics to release
oily stains during home laundering.

PICK AND END COUNT
ASTM D3775

Determines the number of warp and filling
yarns in a woven fabric or wales and
courses in a knitted fabric.

RANDOM TUMBLE PILLING
ASTM D3512

Measures the propensity of a fabric to form
pills; specimens tumble in a cork lined
chamber for 30 minutes.

REPELLENCY TO OIL
AATCC 118

This method is used to detect the presence
of a f1uorochemical finish, or other
compounds capable of imparting a low
energy surface on all types of fabrics. This
is done by evaluating the fabric’s resistance
to wetting by a selected series of liquid
hydrocarbons.

REPELLENCY TO WATER
AATCC 22 (SPRAY RATING)

This method measures the resistance of
fabrics to wetting by water. This is suitable
for measuring the water repellent efficiency
of finishes applied to fabrics.

SEAM SLIPPAGE
ASTM D434/D4034/D3597

Measures the displacement of one or more
yarns from the original position, causing
differences in alignment or spacing or both
by applying an increasing amount of force
to a seam

SEAM STRENGTH (TACK/TEAR)
ASTM D751/CFFA 14

Measures the resistance of a coated fabric
to tearing under conditions simulating an
installation that has been tacked in place.

SNAG RESISTANCE
(MACE METHOD)
ASTM D3939

Assesses the property of a fabric whereby
yarns or parts of yams are prevented or
inhibited from being pulled or plucked from
the surface; a metal mace is used.

STAIN RESISTANCE
CFFA 141

Determines the resistance of a fabric to
staining when subjected to common household
stains and cleaning agents.

STIFFNESS OF FABRICS
ASTM D4032

Determines the resistance of a fabric
to multidirectional bending when forced
through a circular opening.

STRETCH & SET
SAE J855/CFFA 15

Measures the stretch resistance and recovery
ability of a fabric when subjected to 25
pounds of force.

TABER ABRASION
ASTM D3884/CFFA 1B

Measures the abrasion resistance of textile
fabrics. Specimens are abraded by
abrasive wheels under a predetermined
amount of pressure using a rotational rubbing
motion.

TEAR STRENGTH – ELMENDORF
ASTM D1424/CFFA 16A

This method covers the determination of
the force required to propagate a single
rip-tear starting from a cut in a fabric and
using a falling-pendulum (Elmendorf)
apparatus.

TEAR STRENGTH – TONGUE
ASTM D2261/CFFA 16B

Measures the actual tearing strength of
a fabric by partially slitting a specimen to
resemble pants and pulling with equal
force in opposite directions on the two
“legs.”

TEAR STRENGTH/TRAPEZOID
ASTM D5733/D5587/CFFA 16C

Measures the force required to propagate
a single rip tear starting from a cut in the
fabric; specimens are tested in accordance
with the trapezoid procedure whereby
specimens are clamped in the jaws along
opposite sides of the trapezoid marked on
the specimen.

THICKNESS OF FABRICS
ASTM D751

Measures the thickness (distance between
one surface and its opposite) of fabrics.

UFAC DECORATIVE TRIM, EDGING,
FRINGE

Classifies decorative trim, edging and / or
brush fringe which are used in furniture
constructions where they are not covered
with upholstery fabrics. Measures their
resistance to smoldering cigarette ignition.

VOLATILITY
CFFA 18

Determines the rate at which materials
volatize from the chemical coated fabrics at
a given temperature.

WEIGHT OF FABRICS
ASTM D3776, OPT. C/CFFA 20

Measures the mass per unit area of fabrics.

WRINKLE RECOVERY
AATCC 66

Determines the ability of a woven fabric to
recover from folding deformations.

WYZENBEEK ABRASION
ASTM D4157/D3597/CFFA 1A

Measures the abrasion resistance (wearing
away of any part of a material by rubbing
against another surface) of textile fabrics.
Specimens are abraded by placing face to
face with a cotton duck or wire screen abradant
under 3pounds of compression and 4
pounds of tension force and subjecting them
to a back and forth (double rub) movement.