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Posts tagged with “ASTM D5034”

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Textile testing of cotton sheeting using the ASTM International D5034-09 Standard Test Method for Breaking Strength and Elongation (Grab Test) demonstrates the ability of the laboratory to characterize and provide corrective actions to manufacturers and importers based on the determination of assignable and common causes within the framework of a quality control program. Common causes of variation are those associated with everyday or typical on target mill performance. Assignable causes causes are those associated with a loss of control in the manufacturing process that can lead to production of products that fail important performance specifications.

The sample used comprised a plain weave square cotton sheeting whose structure is shown below using both reflected light and scanning electron microscopy:


Light Micrograph Of Plain Weave Textile Structure

Light Microscopy Micrograph Of Plain Weave Sheeting Fabric



Plain Weave Textile Structure Of Cotton Yarn

Scanning Electron Microscopy Of Plain Woven Structure


Testing was performed on Vartest’s Instron 5569 load frame running Bluehill 3 software with real time video capture as seen in the following image:


Video Capture Complements Graphical Force Elongation Curve And Tabular Analysis

Video Capture Provides The Ultimate In Specimen Performance Chracterization


A 100 specimen sample taken in the warp direction was tested on Vartest’s Instron 5569 Constant Rate of Extension Load Frame with interactive video capture as seen in following force elongation curves:


ASTM D5034 Specimens 1 through 25

Specimens 1 through 25


Specimens 26 through 50

Specimens 51 through 75

Specimens 76 through 100


Breaking force was exported and plotted as a control chart which revealed specimens 20 and 85 displaying variation attributable to assignable causes:


Control Chart For Breaking Force


Elongation at break was also exported and plotted as a control chart which revealed specimens 19, 20 and 85 displaying variation attributable to assignable causes.


Control Chart For Elongation At Break


Investigation of video capture files for these specimens revealed slippage at the jaw due to intentionally induced gradually decreasing low air pressure being introduced into the pneumatic clamps as the cause of excessive variation in specimens 20 and 21:


For comparison the break characteristics of Specimen 5 showing only common cause variation is shown in the following video:



Specimen 85 was revealed to be a filling direction specimen that had been intentionally introduced into the test specimen series. While the breaking force of the filling specimen was about 30% lower than the mean, the elongation at break was about 300% higher than the mean; predominantly due to the high level of filling yarn crimp possessed by the filling specimen as opposed to the relatively low amount of warp yarn crimp possessed by the warp specimens as seen in the following video:

Variation in textile quality can be quantified and managed readily with statistical tools used in conjunction with standard test methods and performance specifications.

Gaussian Sort Of Tested Specimens


Assignable causes of variation in textile and apparel quality such as uneven application of water resistant finishes, antibacterial finishes and seam slippage performance can all be analyzed and corrected with the aid of these techniques. Accredited quality assurance laboratories inform and control factory supply chains worldwide.

For more information click here for Instron’s Website.